Erin Milne Film

DISCOVERING THE WORLD THROUGH FILM

Category: History

The massive European network of Stone Age tunnels that weaves from Scotland to Turkey

Stone Age man created a massive network of underground tunnels criss-crossing Europe from Scotland to Turkey, a new book on the ancient superhighways has claimed.

German archaeologist Dr Heinrich Kusch said evidence of the tunnels has been found under hundreds of Neolithic settlements all over the continent.

In his book – Secrets Of The Underground Door To An Ancient World – he claims the fact that so many have survived after 12,000 years shows that the original tunnel network must have been enormous.

Evidence of Stone Age tunnels has been found under hundreds of Neolithic settlements all over Europe - the fact that so many have survived after 12,000 years shows the original tunnel network must have been hugeEvidence of Stone Age tunnels has been found under hundreds of Neolithic settlements all over Europe – the fact that so many have survived after 12,000 years shows the original tunnel network must have been huge

‘In Bavaria in Germany alone we have found 700metres of these underground tunnel networks. In Styria in Austria we have found 350metres,’ he said.

‘Across Europe there were thousands of them – from the north in Scotland down to the Mediterranean.

‘Most are not much larger than big wormholes – just 70cm wide – just wide enough for a person to wriggle along but nothing else.

‘They are interspersed with nooks, at some places it’s larger and there is seating, or storage chambers and rooms.

‘They do not all link up but taken together it is a massive underground network.’

Not for the claustrophobic: Most of the tunnels are just 70cm wide - just wide enough for a person to slowly wriggle throughNot for the claustrophobic: Most of the tunnels are just 70cm wide – just wide enough for a person to slowly wriggle through

Some experts believe the network was a way of protecting man from predators while others believe that some of the linked tunnels were used like motorways are today, for people to travel safely regardless of wars or violence or even weather above ground.

The book notes that chapels were often built by the entrances perhaps because the Church were afraid of the heathen legacy the tunnels might have represented, and wanted to negate their influence.

In some cases writings have been discovered referring to the tunnels seen as a gateway to the underworld.

Advertisements

ALICE GUY: THE FIRST WOMEN FILM DIRECTOR

ImageAlice Guy did not work very long as a typist for the Gaumont Film Company in 1894 before she started directing, producing and writing more than 700 films. In 1906 she directed The Life of Christ, which included 300 extras and was one for the biggest productions of its time. She also directed The Cabbage Fairy 1896, one of the earliest narrative fiction films in history and was probably made before Melies formalist films but after the Lumiere brother’s first fiction film L’arroseur, 1985.

Alice was one for the pioneers of audio recording and special affects. Using Gourmont’s Chordophone system she was able to use audio in conjunction with images. She was also used double exposures, masking techniques and ran the film backwards to create her films.

In 1907 Alice and her husband Herbert Blanche lead Gaumont’s industry to USA but after two years they started the formation of they’re own company called The Solax Company, the largest pre Hollywood studio in America with production studio’s in New Jersy and New York. In 1905 she gave birth to her daughter Simone and was the first woman to run and own her own production studio. In 1914 Herbert went to Hollywood with one of the actesses. Guy directed her last film Tarnished Reputations 1920 and almost died making it from the Spanish Influenza. In 1922 she and her husband were divorced and she was forced to auction off the studio. She returned to France and never made a film ever again. In 1927 she returned to France to find some of her work but was unsuccessful.

Image

Her old boss, Gaumont published the history for his film company but made no mention of anything before 1907, when Guy left the France and took the company to America. In 1953, Guy was awarded the Legion D’Honneur, the highest non-military award in France but it was hardly noticed by the public and still is not today.